A note from the author, Imed Bouchrika, PhD, career planning and academic research expert:
From conducting preliminary literature reviews to collecting data, every part of the research process relies on a research question. As an expert with more than 10 years of experience in academic research and writing, I know well that identifying a research question can be challenging even with primary and secondary research sources as the literature body continues to expand. Given this challenge, I have created this guide on how to create a good research question based on actual practices in the academe. Through this guide, I hope to impart knowledge that can help you in identifying a research question and also in creating a study that can significantly impact your field.
A research question is a question that a study or research project, through its thesis statement, aims to answer. This question often addresses an issue or a problem, which, through analysis and interpretation of data, is answered in the study's conclusion. In most studies, the research question is written so that it outlines various aspects of the study, including the population and variables to be studied and the problem the study addresses.
As their name implies, a research question is often grounded on research. As a result, these questions are dynamic; this means researchers can change or refine the research question as they review related literature and develop a framework for the study. While many research projects will focus on a single research question, larger studies often use more than one research question.
The primary importance of developing a research question is that it narrows down a broad topic of interest into a specific area of study (Creswell, 2014). Research questions, along with hypotheses, also serve as a guiding framework for research. These questions also specifically reveal the boundaries of the study, setting its limits, and ensuring cohesion.
Moreover, the research question has a domino effect on the rest of the study. These questions influence factors, such as the research methodology, sample size, data collection, and data analysis (Lipowski, 2008).
Research questions can be classified into different categories, depending on the type of research to be done. Knowing what type of research one wants to do—quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods studies—can help in writing effective research questions.
Doody and Bailey (2016) suggest a number of common types of research questions, as outlined below.
Quantitative research questions are precise. These questions typically include the population to be studied, dependent and independent variables, and the research design to be used. They are usually framed and finalized at the start of the study (Berger, 2015).
Quantitative research questions also establish a link between the research question and the research design. Moreover, these questions are not answerable with "yes" or "no" responses. As a result, quantitative research questions don't use words such as "is," "are," "do," or "does."
Quantitative research questions usually seek to understand particular social, familial, or educational experiences or processes that occur in a particular context and/or location (Marshall & Rossman, 2011). They can be further categorized into three types: descriptive, comparative, and relationship.
Qualitative research questions may concern broad areas of research or more specific areas of study. Similar to quantitative research questions, qualitative research questions are linked to research design. Unlike their quantitative counterparts, though, qualitative research questions are usually adaptable, non-directional, and more flexible (Creswell, 2013). As a result, studies using these questions generally aim to "discover," "explain," or "explore."
Ritchie et al. (2014) and Marshall and Rossman (2011) have also further categorized qualitative research questions into a number of types, as listed below:
The following table illustrates the differences between quantitative and qualitative research questions.
|Example: Factors that increase the likelihood of childhood anxiety include peer pressure, genetics, and higher intelligence levels.|
|Key aspects of the topic to be discussed||peer pressure, parental education, and higher intelligence levels|
Mixed-methods studies typically require a set of both quantitative and qualitative research questions. Separate questions are appropriate when the mixed-methods study focuses on the significance and differences in quantitative and qualitative methods and not on the study's integrative component (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010).
Researchers also have the option to develop a single mixed-methods research question. According to Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010), this suggests an integrative process or component between the study's quantitative and qualitative research methods.
Before learning how to write a research paper, you must first learn how to create a research question. Based on the research question definition provided, formulate your query. If you are looking for criteria for a good research question, Stone (2002) says that a good research question should be relevant, decided, and meaningful. Creating a research question can be a tricky process, but there is a specific method you can follow to ease the process.
The following steps will guide you on how to formulate a research question:
A broad topic provides writers with plenty of avenues to explore in their search for a viable research question. Techniques to help you develop a topic into subtopics and potential research questions include brainstorming and concept mapping. For example, you can raise thought-provoking questions with your friends and flesh out ideas from your discussions. These techniques can organize your thoughts so you can identify connections and relevant themes within a broad topic.
When searching for a topic, it's wise to choose an area of study that you are genuinely interested in, since your interest in a topic will affect your motivation levels throughout your research. It's also wise to consider the interests being addressed recently by the research community, as this may affect your paper’s chances of getting published.
Source: National Science Foundation
Once you have picked a topic, you can start doing preliminary research. This initial stage of research accomplishes two goals. First, a preliminary review of related literature allows you to discover issues that are currently being discussed by scholars and fellow researchers. This way, you get up-to-date, relevant knowledge on your topic.
Second, a preliminary review of related literature allows you to spot existing gaps or limitations in existing knowledge of your topic. With a certain amount of fine-tuning, you can later use these gaps as the focus of your research question.
Moreover, according to Farrugia et al. (2010), certain institutions that provide grants encourage applicants to conduct a systematic review of available studies and evidence to see if a similar, recent study doesn't already exist, before applying for a grant.
Once you have gathered enough knowledge on the topic you want to pursue, you can start focusing on a more specific area of study and narrowing down a research question. One option is to focus on gaps in existing knowledge or recent literature. Referred to by Sandberg and Alvesson (2011) as "gap-spotting," this method involves constructing research questions out of identified limitations in literature and overlooked areas of study. Similarly, researchers can choose research questions that extend or complement the findings of existing literature.
Another way of identifying and constructing research questions: problematization (Sandberg & Alvesson, 2011). As a research question methodology, problematization aims to challenge and scrutinize assumptions that support others' and the researcher's theoretical position. This means constructing research questions that challenge your views or knowledge of the area of study.
Lipowski (2008), on the other hand, emphasizes the importance of taking into consideration the researcher's personal experiences in the process of developing a research question. Researchers who are also practitioners, for instance, can reflect on problematic areas of their practice. Patterns and trends in practice may also provide new insights and potential research question examples.
At this point, you should have a list of potential research questions to choose from. To narrow them down, you have to evaluate each potential option based on their soundness, which can mean a number of things. Aside from being clear or specific, a good research question will also need to be relevant. There are other factors to consider when choosing which research question to investigate. To create a better play-by-play, here are the most crucial characteristics of the research question that you are looking for according to Hulley et al. (2007) known as the "FINER" criteria to find out if you have a good research question. The FINER criteria are outlined below:
F - Feasible
A good research question is feasible, which means that the question is well within the researcher's ability to investigate. Researchers should be realistic about the scale of their research as well as their ability to collect data and complete the research with their skills and the resources available to them. It's also wise to have a contingency plan in place in case problems arise.
I - Interesting
The ideal research question is interesting not only to the researcher but also to their peers and community. This interest boosts the researcher's motivation to see the question answered. For instance, you can do research on student housing trends if it is right up your alley, as they do change often.
N - Novel
Your research question should be developed to bring new insights to the field of study you are investigating. The question may confirm or extend previous findings on the topic you are researching, for instance.
E - Ethical
This is one of the more important considerations of making a research question. Your research question and your subsequent study must be something that review boards and the appropriate authorities will approve.
R - Relevant
Aside from being interesting and novel, the research question should be relevant to the scientific community and people involved in your area of study. If possible, your research question should also be relevant to the public's interest.
Considering research question importance, research questions should be structured properly to ensure clarity. Look for good research questions examples. There are a number of frameworks that you can use for properly constructing a research question. The two most commonly used frameworks are explained below.
The PICOT research question framework was first introduced in 1995 by Richardson et al. Using the PICOT framework, research questions can be constructed to address important elements of the study, including the population to be studied, the expected outcomes, and the time it takes to achieve the outcome. With these elements, the framework is more commonly used in clinical research and evidence-based studies.
The sample research question below illustrates how to write research questions based on the PICOT framework and its elements:
|Between the ages of five and 18, are children of parents with diagnosed mental health issues at increased risk of depression or anxiety compared with children of parents with no diagnosed mental health issues?|
|P (population being studied)||children|
|I (indicator or intervention)||parents with diagnosed mental health issues|
|C (comparison group)||children of parents with no diagnosed mental health issues|
|O (outcome of interest)||increased risk of depression or anxiety|
|T (timeframe of interest)||between the ages of five and 18|
Like the PICOT framework, the PEO framework is commonly used in clinical studies as well. However, this framework is more useful for qualitative research questions. This framework includes these elements:
Below is an example of research question in the PEO framework:
|Paper section and topic||Description|
|1. Title and title page||Identify variables and theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them;
Author note contains acknowledgment of special circumstances.
|2. Abstract||Problem under investigation;
Participants or subjects; specifying pertinent characteristics; in animal research, include genus and species
Findings, including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels;
Conclusions and the implications or applications
|3. Introduction||The importance of the problem;
Review of relevant scholarship;
Specific hypotheses and objectives;
How hypotheses and research design relate to one another
|Participant characteristics||Eligibility and exclusion criteria;
Major demographic characteristics as well as important topic-specific characteristics.
|Sampling procedures||Procedures for selecting participants;
Settings and locations where data were collected;
Agreements and payments made to participants;
Institutional review board agreements, ethical standards met, safety monitoring
|Sample size, power, and precision||Intended sample size;
Actual sample size;
How sample size was determined
|Measures and covariates||Definitions of all primary and secondary measures and covariates;
Methods used to collect data;
Methods used to enhance the quality of measurements;
Information on validated or ad hoc instruments created for individual studies
|Research design||Whether conditions were manipulated or naturally observed;
Type of research design.
|Participant flow||Total number of participants;
Flow of participants through each stage of the study
|Recruitment||Dates defining the periods of recruitment and repeated measurements or follow-up|
|Statistics and data |
|Information concerning problems with statistical assumptions and/or data distributions that could affect the validity of findings;
Missing data, etc.
Statistical software program, if specialized procedures were used
Report any other analyses performed,
|Ancillary analyses||Discussion of implications of ancillary analyses for statistical error rates.|
|6. Discussion||Statement of support or nonsupport for all original hypotheses;
Similarities and differences between the results and work of others
Interpretation of the results;
Generalizability (external validity) of the findings;
Discussion of implications for future research, program, or policy.
Other commonly used frameworks for research questions include the SPIDER (Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type) and CLIP (Client group, Location of provided service, Improvement/Information/Innovation, Professionals) frameworks. Aside from helping researchers properly structure research questions, these frameworks also help refine research results and improve the focus of data analysis.
The following research question examples can further guide researchers on properly constructing a research question.
Example no. 1
Bad: How does social media affect people's behavior?
Good: What effect does the daily use of YouTube have on the attention span of children aged under 16?
The first research question is considered bad because of the vagueness of "social media" as a concept and the question's lack of specificity. A good research question should be specific and focused, and its answer should be discovered through data collection and analysis. You can also hone your ability to construct well-worded and specific research questions by improving reading skills.
Example no. 2
Bad: Has there been an increase in childhood obesity in the US in the past 10 years?
Good: How have school intervention programs and parental education levels affected the rate of childhood obesity among 1st to 6th-grade students?
In the second example, the first research question is not ideal because it's too simple, and it's easily answerable by a "yes" or "no." The second research question is more complicated; to answer it, the researcher must collect data, perform in-depth data analysis, and form an argument that leads to further discussion.
Developing the right research question is a critical first step in the research process. The examples of research questions provided in this guide have illustrated what good research questions look like. The key points outlined below should help researchers in the pursuit: